By Kelly Dorfman, MS, LND, Co-Founder, Developmental Delay Resources

Improving Liver Detoxification PathwaysResearch on autistic children in England and hyperactive youngsters in the United States has uncovered a possible common enzyme deficiency.

The enzyme in question, phenol sulfo transferase-P (PST-P), is an important component of liver detoxification pathways.

When PST-P is inefficient, the body cannot properly break down hormones, certain food components, and toxic chemicals.

The reason many hyperactive children become agitated after eating foods with artificial colors is because PST-P is needed to render the mildly toxic dyes harmless.

As the environment becomes more polluted, those with the strongest capacity to break down poisons will survive the best.

From a natural selection perspective, hyperactivity and autism may be nature’s way of sorting out those with the least ability, genetically speaking, to handle internally/externally produced toxins or “overload”.

This hypothesis is supported by research showing that environmentally damaged areas often have a high density of developmentally delayed children.

There are several tests available now to identify individu­als with weak detoxification pathways. Unfortunately, normal values for those under 12 years of age have not been fully established.

What is a parent to do while waiting for conclusive research?

If sending 24 hours’ worth of urine to England is not possible, a parent can look at symptoms which may suggest possible low PST-P enzyme activity. These symptoms include the following:

  • Known food/chemical intolerance
  • Agitated sleep
  • Regressive behavior after eating food/juice containing artificial colors
  • Self-injurious actions
  • High consumption of apple (or other salicylate containing) juice
  • Large variations in functioning ability
  • High exposure (pre or post natally) to environmental toxins
  • High sensitivity to medications
  • Volatile/violent conduct

The most conclusive evidence is a visible reaction to apple juice or artificial food color. To test this possibility, all artificial dyes and juice should be removed from the diet for several days.

Then, on a day when the child will not be in school and there are no pressing obligations, give a child a few fruit roll-ups or a glass of red Kool-aid and observe.

If weak, PST-P enzymes are a problem, behavior generally deteriorates rapidly.

There are two ways to deal with poor detoxification: either lessen the toxic burden and/or increase the efficiency of the pathway.

You can lessen the toxic burden both internally and externally.

Some parents have used diets that remove all known phenol compounds (such as Sara’s diet) to take pressure off the PST-P enzyme system.

While sometimes helpful, these diets are extraordinarily difficult to implement long-term as naturally occurring phenols are in every food with color.

Except in extreme cases, a diet reducing toxic load from the most concentrated sources (such as the Feingold Diet), appears to be the best.

That is, reduce juices (or limit to pear juice) and eliminate all artificial colors and flavors.

Try to eliminate or minimize preservatives.

Also, examine external pollutants around your home and yard. Avoid pesticides, scrutinize cleaning solutions.

Debra Dodd’s book Home Safe Home offers many safe alternatives.

Unfortunately, no amount of intervention on an individual’s part can totally unburden PST-P enzymes.

That is why it is critically important to improve the efficiency of the faulty enzyme system while attempting to lessen the load.


Several nutrients may help.

They include vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced L-glutathione and N-acetylcystiene.

All of the antioxidants (including selenium and bioflavonoids) are valuable for detoxification in general.

The most common anti-oxidants (vitamin C and E) are readily available and easy to use.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C can be purchased as a chewable vitamin. Long term or aggressive use of chewables is not recommended as the acid is hard on teeth enamel.

For those who cannot swallow pills, soluble crystals can be purchased from most health food stores.

For children 1-3 years, 500 mg is safe.

Larger amounts can be used in older youngsters or when the child is fighting an illness.

Too much vitamin C will cause loose stools but it is otherwise nontoxic.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is soy or wheat based in a majority of commercial preparations.

Be sure to use a natural E listed on the bottle as d-alpha tocopherol or mixed tocopherols).

Avoid synthetic vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopherol).

Liquid E as micellized vitamin E is available for those needing a liquid version.

Other Antioxidants

Two lesser-known anti-oxidants that appear to be specific in helping PST-P enzyme, N-acetylcystiene and reduced L-glutathione, can be tried in cases of extreme sensitivity.

The PST-P requires these sulfur containing amino acids; however these necessary antioxidants can sometimes backfire and agitate the child.

Be sure to try only one or the other, by itself, and discontinue immediately if the child seems more irritable.

The beginning dose (in children over 3) for reduced L-glutathione is 50 mg and for N-acetylcysteine 250-300 mg.

Start with 1/2 dose and work up to the full dose.

The above information is general.

For specific questions or problems, contact a nutritionally trained medical professional.

Still Looking for Answers?

Visit the Epidemic Answers Provider Directory to find a practitioner near you.

Related Pages

Detoxification for Children


  1. Grace Flower

    My son had all of these symptoms. Now, at 13 he is finally better, eating a regular diet and not depressed or anxious anymore. He was on The Feingold Diet and Tha Failsafe Diet for years and very underweight. He ate all home made foods, no dyes, preservatives, nitrates, no sulfur or sulfites, no soy sauce and very low salicylates. He had The Hulk like outbursts, put holes in every wall, broke doors, broke phones, cried that he hated himself, he has hypersensitivity to medication (hallucinations, suicidal, full body rash and vomiting)….he was sick all the time (allergies and asthma were bad and coughed all winter long). When we started treating the PST-pathway problem-most of his problems disappeared, we found all answers online and no Dr. has ever been helpful. He takes two epsom salt foot soaks everyday, magnesium, molybdenum, cod liver oil with A and D, vit B6, milk thistle and weekly pedialyte (the potassium really seems to help with his under eye circles) and liquid zinc. He is in such a great place that we will be finishing up homeschooling this year and he is transitioning to high school.

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